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SATII美国历史主线资料之foreign diplomacy

2016-09-02 11:19




Neutrality in Napoleon’swar and other diplomacy(1800-1816):

Barbary pirates: naval battle in Mediterranean; am gained respect andable to protect am vessels

Neutrality: challenge(naval blockade; br impressment; Chesapeake-leopardaffair); action(embargo act 1807-repealed; nonintercourse act of 1809; macon’sbill no.2 1810- napoleon’s deception);

Era of goodfeeling foreign policy(1816-1824):

General pattern: nationalistic and more aggressive diplomacy whilemaintain peace;

w/ br. canada: rush-bagot great lake disarmament agreement(1817);treaty of 1818(Oregon and 49th border);

attack and purchase sp. Florida: background(runawayslaves and NA raid am and flee back to flo); jackson military drove sp out;florida purchase treaty(1819)(5M for florida; sp give up Oregon; am give uptexas claim);

Monroe doctrine to euro: proposed by br to fend off euro aggressionin am continent(Russia in Alaska; sp in south am); am declared alone, annoyedbr; backup(br powerful navy); effective in the future, not then;

Expansionismand manifest destiny(1830-1860):


pattern: manifest destiny; north view expansion as southerneffort to extend slavery

diplomacy w/ mexico: mexico side(attract settlers to texas; Stephen Austin-attractam family to texas, himself am; outlaw slavery, convert to mex citizen andcatholism; finally closed immigration); Texans(alamo defeated; sam houstondefeated santa anna in battle of san jacinto; texas independence, republic oftexas; initially failed to annex due to the potential of breaking up sectionalbalance); US(annex texas during pierce’s term; war with mexico due to borderdispute and purchase of Mexican cession); Gadsden purchase(new mexico and Arizonafor 10M)

diplomacy w/ br: maine-canada boundary(battle of the maps, or Aroostookwar; Webster-ashburton treaty); Oregon (br fur trade in Oregon; 54 40 or fight;divide by 49 parallel); clayton-bulwer treaty(1850; no exclusive control offuture cannal in center am; repealed by hay-pauncefote treaty);

diplomacy w/ japan: matthew perry convince japan to open port to am


South: want to get foreign aid; convinced br and fr not to aid after failurein Antietam

Trent affair: trent ship captured by union and later conf diplomatsrelieved; conf still fail to get recognized by br

Confederate raiders: commerce raiders harmed us merchant ships; ship “alabama”bought from br

Failure of king cotton: Egypt and india as br’s new raw material for textileindustry; br side with union’s antislavery emancipation

Foreign policyafter civil war to WWI(1865-1914)

General pattern: am need world market and raw material; more involvedin international pattern; become a strong imperialistic nation; am seek for herinterest overseas; imperialism actions highly contested domestically

Chronicle trend: Seward purchase Alaska

The prevalence of imperialism and international Darwinism(our country by josiah strong; the influence of sea power upon history bymahan)

James blaine assecretary of state(1889): pan-american conference(cooperation w/ latin am)

Cleveland and secretary of state Olney: venezula boundary dispute

Mckinley and john hay as secretary of state: am-sp war(cause: Cuban revolt; yellowjournalism; de lome letter; maine in Havana harbor)/(process: teller amendment;philippine george dewey; cuba rough riders and TR)/(afterwards: treaty ofparis: Puerto rico, guam and Philippine; Philippine guerrilla war; antiimperialist league; insular cases; platt amendment); annex Hawaii; john hay andopen door policy, boxer rebellion

TR and big stick policy: panama canal(revolution in panama;hay-pauncefote treaty); Roosevelt corollary(Venezuela and Dominican debts toeuro); east asia (gentlemen’s agreement; great white fleet; root-takahiraagreement );     mediation(russo-japanese war and treaty of portsmouth; Algecirasconference btw fr and ger)

Taft and dollar diplomacy: RR in china; military protect am investmentin Nicaragua civil war; lodge corollary(anger japan)

Woodrow Wilson and moral diplomacy: jones act of1916(philippine); Puerto rico citizenship; mexico civil war(oppose autocraticvictoriano huerta; Tampico incident, brink of war and ABC power; expeditionaryforce pursues pancho villa; end as WWI start)

WWI (1914-1919)

General pattern: neutral; war for peace; triumph; isolationist

Neutrality: br and ger seize am trade ships(submarine U-boats; Lusitania;Sussex; Sussex pledge; Inclination toward fr and ger)

War debate: preparedness(national security league);

War process: declaration origin(unrestricted submarine warfare; Zimmermantelegram);

Fight the war: Bolsheviks took Russia out of war(more tension on thewestern front); convoy system(protect merchant ships); AEF(Americanexpeditionary force; led by John Pershing)

Peace agreement: wilson’s fourteen points (league of nation, self determination);treaty of Versailles(big four; euro countries want ger compensation; selfdetermination; league of nations)

League of nations: weak w/out am

1920s: peace oriented foreign policy

Washington conference of disarmament (harding 1921):

5power treaty on naval power; 4power treaty on pacificterritory; 9power treaty on china open door policy

Kellogg-briand pact: idealistic outlaw wars; ineffective and lackenforcement; Jane Addams

Business diplomacy:

Latin American good neighbour policy: withdraw troop in Nicaragua and Haiti,reduce military, increase economic impact

Tariff: fordney mccumber tariff and Harvey smoot tariff(causeexportation tariffs foreign; slow br/fr pay debts to am)

Debts: frbr unwilling to pay; high tariff slowed repayment; dawes plan(am-ger-frbr-am)

Foreign policyduring great depression and WWII(1929-1945): general pattern: isolation to neutrality to totalinvolvement

1930s isolationism: Background (economic hardship arouse militarydictatorships and nationalism in jp, ger and ita-axis powers; ita Mussolini;ger hate Versailles, adolf Hitler nazi, against jews; jp invade china; sp civilwar btw fascism and republicanism); Herbert hoover isolationism(japan defy opendoor policy and invade Manchuria; league’s inability to maintain peace; USstimson doctrine- no enforcement; friendly w/ latin am-withdraw troops from Haitiand Nicaragua);  FDR latin am diplomacy(latinam good neighbor policy-fail of dollar diplomacy due to depression;pan-american conference- noninterference and mutual safety; nullify plattamendment- cuba); FDR diplomacy related w/ domestic economy(unsuccessful Londoneconomic conference; recognition of soviet-increase trade; tidings-mcduffieact- phili independence, reduce budget; reciprocal tariff- increase trade);

Other FDR foreign policies (neutrality acts);isolationism movement (WWI disillusion- Nye committee; America first committee-againstwar); international appeasement to avoid war (Ethiopia; Rhineland; sudentenland)

Neutrality towar(1939-1941):

background(soviet nonaggression w/ ger; ger invade Polandand blitzkrieg; fr surrender and only br left as ally; public view shift awayform isolationism); increased aid toward br (cash and carry; destroyer for basedeal; lend-lease act-br credit); domestic preparedness(select service act-before declaration of war ); increased cooperation w/ br(atlantic charter;shoot on sight-protect lend lease br ships); dispute w/ japan(eliminateexportation; froze credits; cut oil supply; failed negotiation; caused pearlharbor); declaration of war(caused by pearl harbor; on japan); Russian-gernonaggression pact(close of second battle line; division of east euro; originof cold war)


background(ger break w/ soviet; concentrate on eurostage first)

Europe stage(br and am as major force; battle ofatlantic- against submarine, secure trade; north Africa campaign- Eisenhower;invade sicily island and italy; D day- Eisenhower, Normandy coast, liberate fr;battle of the bulge- last counterattack; holocaust discovered)

Yalta conference(big three after win euro; ger divide;east euro free election; soviet war against jp)

Potsdam conference (big three after win euro; demandjp surrender; nazi trials)

Pacific stage(command by general macarthur; turningpoint- battle of coral sea(australia), battle of midway; island hopping;mrarthur reoccupy Philip; manhattan secret project-oppenheimer, atomic bomb; Trumanbomb jp-hiroshima, Nagasaki, reduce am casualty; jp surrender on ship missouri)

War afterwards: united nations(assemble in SF to draft a charter);cold war

Cold war(1945-1952):

Relation with USSR aggravated: nonaggression pact of 1939; sovietoccupation of east euro as satellite states, violating self-determination;soviet refuse participation in world bank; Iron curtain speech(Churchill pointout rival sides of  USSR+east euro anddemocratic world);

Containment policy: planners(Truman; george kennan-expert on USSR; georgemarshall- sec of state); Truman doctrine(assist free people- turkey and greece);marshall plan(fund for eco revive in euro, lest communist occupy); berlinairlift(after stalin block west berlin from supply; stalin finally opened theway to berlin; fed repub of ger v. ger demo repub); NATO v. Warsaw pact; armsrace(atomic and H)

Cold war and Asia: japan(recons by and control of am; us-jp securitytreaty; jp as am ally); Philippines independence; china(civil war; communistoccupation and loss of china); Korean war(north invasion; un police force; Chinesereinforce; macarthur fired; armistice on 38th)

1950s:John dulles as sec of state

What he said: new look- roll back communism; nuclear superiority andbrinksmanship; massive retaliation- reduce conventional weapon, rely on nuclearand air force, H bomb;

What actually succeed: end of Korean war (statusquo-38th); SEATO; middle east(suez crisis- success am intervention; Eisenhowerdoctrine); soviet(Geneva thaw in cold war; fail to uphold for Hungarian revolt;sputnik; U2 incident and cancelled paris summit)

What actually had bad influence: CIA covert action(shah of iran-in returnfor oil price; overthrow Guatemala gov; ruthless dictatorsl anti am feeling;train cuba exiles); fall of Indochina(viet, Cambodia resist fr dominion, frgive up); Vietnam(ho chi minh north communist viet; aid to dictatorial southviet- domino theory); middle east(OPEC); soviet(Geneva conf-failed open skies;successful put down berlin crisis by camp david);


Third world(Peace corps; flexibleresponse-containment, conventional force and green beret)

Europe (Trade expansion act)

Soviet(Address west Berliner after construction ofberlin war; cuba missile crisis-compromised to remove)

Cuba(CIA failed invasion-bay of pigs; Cuban missilecrisis-agree not to invade cuba)

Viet war see “war” doc;


Viet war see “war” doc;


Détente: End viet war;

Détente w/ china: cause(china USSR rivalry); travel to Beijing to meetmao;

w/ soviet: SALT-freeze on nuclear missiles;


Invade Cambodia: national wide protest; kent statecollege protest;

Middle east policy: OPEC embargo & 1st worldwide oilshortage(cause- am help Israel during middle east war; embargo on Israelsupporter; worsen eco in am);

Gerald ford: failure of us fp in southeast asia- not his fault

Viet: (Fall of saigon during his term; fall of viet tocommunist;)

Cambodia: (Genocide in Cambodia- fall of Cambodia tocommunists);

Jimmy cater- human rights fp:

Similar to wilson’s extension of democracy;

Panama: gradually transfer canal to Panamanians;repeal panama canal treaty of 1903(TR);

Middle east: camp david accords(1978; Israel and Egypt; E recog I;road to peace in middle east); iran hostage(cause-end of shah’s prowestautocratic rule in iran; seizure of am embassy in Tehran and failed rescue);

Soviet détente failed: SALTII(limit nuclear delivery system; not ratified incong); soviet invasion of Afghanistan(am boycott Moscow Olympic; embargo onUSSR; am arm buildup);


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