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SATII美国历史主线资料之culture,works andlifestyle

2016-09-02 11:19

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    以下就是100留学SAT为大家带来SATII美国历史主线资料之cultureworks andlifestyle,希望对各位考生的备考有所帮助:


Life inindustrialized north(1820-1860): farming NW see “agriculture doc”

pattern: NE, mid atlantic states-manufacture; old northwest(NWordinance)-commercial farming; still agrarian society


NE and manu: manu other than and including textile; initial organizedlabor; northern cities- working-class neighborhoods, slums, many immi; newcities- transfer points, manu good E TO W, farm product W TO E


Life insouth(1820-1860):

Agricultural Hierarchy: planter aristocracy(code of chivalry,college edu); farmers; poor whites and mountain men; slaves(slave codes);


Cities: new orlean only major city; free blacks inferiorstatus in cities

Religion and politic: pro slavery Methodist and Baptist church; slavery aspolitical basis


Life inwest(1820-1860): not NW, west of miss river

Expansionism: exhausted soil-need new land; improved transportation;cheap land west attracted ger immi; garrison and jackson remove NA


Western political requirement: easy credit from state banks; cheap fedland; better transportation;


Mountain men: fur trade; guide for passbys


Frontier life: intense work; isolation; multitask for women

Environ damage: exhausted soil; extincted buffalos


nationalismduring era of good feelings: (1816-1824)


patriotism: excited young people toward optimistic prosperity;patriotism infused in am society (hero stories and paintings)


1820-1860:second great awakening and social reform


Second great awakening: cause of social reforms


Time scale: from jacksonian era to civil war


Cause: enlightenment belief; evangelical belief


Patterns: against rationalism, against Calvinism; appeal tomiddle class and working people(charles finny- self salvation through faith andhard work; burn over district); started from educated people(reverend timothy Dwightin yale; charles finny);


Forms: circuit camp meetings(south and western frontier; burnover district in NY); millennialism(William miller and second come of Christ);mormons(church of the latter-day saints, book of mormon; joseph smith andbelievers persecuted; utah new zion; polygamist; )


Romantic and idealistic culture:

Transcendentalists: celebrity(Ralph waldo emerson-anti slavery,individualism and american unique culture; henry david thoreau- ecologist,nonviolent protest immoral gov and Mexican war); books(waldon, civildisobedience-thoreau); belief(spirit over material; essence of in nature; individualismand self-reliance)


Utopian society: pattern(social and economic equality; abstemious;spiritual achievement; finally failed); examples(brook farm-transcendentalist;shakers-abstemious; new harmony-equality; Oneida-equality; fourierphalanxes-share and community life)


Arts and literature: genre painting; landscape painting(Hudson riverschool); greek style architecture(glorify democratic society); unique American literature(transcendentalist;American settings);


Reform:

Cause: religious motivation(especially in northern states)


Central belief: improve people’s moral; construct new publicinstitutions through political advocacy


Pattern: reform active in north and west; south commited totradition and opposed to abolitionism-northern conspiracy;

Temperance: from moral to political; alcohol causesocial ills; organizations(American temperance society-total abstinence; Washingtonians-treatyalcoholism as disease;); temperance as middle class respectability; opposed byold immigrants; advocated by factories; women involvement; end(overshadowed bysectionalism debate)


Public asylum: belief(cure psychopath by providing goodenvironment); mental hospitals(dorothea dix; gov spend professional treatment);schools for handicapped; prisons(penitentiaries and suicide; rigid disciplinebring moral reform)


Public education: horace mann(free mandatory public school);mcguffey(textbooks mingle moral instruction and reading); private schools forimmigrants(catholic groups); colleges(private colleges by religion groups;admit women);


Family: background(from rural to industrial urban); genderstereotype for middle class(men-work; women-cult of domesticity, children andmoral leader); birth control(children became burden instead of labor);


American peace society: no war; oppose Mexican war


1824-1844: riseof democracy and commom man politics

Equal opportunity for all white males: self-made man; suppressionof women and black simultaneously


1820-1860: lifein western territories


Pattern: little settlement on great American desert and greatplain(for future 1860-1900); cali and Oregon fertile vally lands settled forfarming and mining, family arrive through overland trails(slow and hazardous-NA, disease, bad condition); middle class movement;

Fur trade frontier; mountain man; trade w/ NA;

Mining: gold rush in cali; mining towns boom; Chinese miners

Farming; preemption act(cheap public land purchase);



1865-1900:industrial America and laissez-faire


Adam smith: the wealth of nations; laissez-faire economy;invisible hand that control economy, not gov


Social Darwinist: natural selection and survive for the fittest inmarket and society; justify the wealthies’ success


Protestant work ethic: hard work and success


Gospel of wealth: philanthropy and Andrew Carnegie; for benefit ofsociety


Inventions: telegraph(FB Morse); telephone(Graham Bell); Edison(researchlaboratory); george Westinghouse


1865-1900: urbanization

Urbanization: market and manufacture center; rural am and AAmigrate to northern cities


City structure: central business district; city’s factories andworkers’ housing near them; city tenement house and immigrant ethnicneighborhoods; up and middle class commute to work from  suburb;


Transportation: effect(expand cities and suburbs; commute to work);forms(trolleys, elevated RR and subways)


Skyscrapers: home insurance company building


Machine politics: political machine and boss (Tweed in tammany hall,NY); reform city policy for vote; spoil system; highly corrupted; Thomasnast(cartoonist; expose tweed’s corruption in new york times)


Reform: social criticism(progress and poverty; lookingbackward); settlement house(jane Addams and hull house); social gospel;feminism


1865-1900:industrial and urban culture

Education: compulsory school laws increasedenrollment; public funded high schools; land grant and philanthropist found college;elective course; johns Hopkins and graduated study; social sciences prevalence


Literature: realism (mark twain- huckleberry finn);naturalism(jack London-call of the wild)


Art: realism; social realism(aschcan school); abstractpaintings (armory show in 1913);


Music: jazz and blues


Pop culture: popular press(joseph Pulitzer- new yorkworld-muckracking)


Entertaining: circus; buffalo bill and wild west show; saloon;


Sports: spectator sports; amateurish sports;


1865-1900: the closeof frontiers

Jackson Turner’s frontier thesis: the significance offrontier in American history; formation of am spirit(independence;individualism; democracy; relief class tension; fresh start)


Assimilatist: a century of dishonor(book by Helen hunt Jackson;sympathy for NA and approve assimilation); definition(support education for NAin white ways and convert NA to Christianity)


1901-1918:

Progressivism(limit business; voter rights anddemocracy; larger government; middle class reformists improve urban conditionsduring industrial age; WWI brought to an end)


Growing cities and mix ethnicity; past time for ruralsociety

Protestant churches preached social gospel on urbanpoverty

AA union and feminist leaders argue for rights


Pragmatism: william james and john dewey


Evolutionism: Charles Darwin challenged old belief

Taylorsim of scientific management and efficiency


Muckrackers: Lincoln steffens(shame of the cities); IdaTarbell(history of standard oil company); Jacob riis(how the other half lives);Upton Sinclair(the jungle)


Settlement house movements: middle class women; led byJane Addams


Temperance and prohibition; anti-saloon league(incities)

Socialist party: Eugene debs; radical support labor


WWI: civil liberty curtailed; committee on public information; anti germany

Post WWI: red scare(palmer raids; arrests of anarchist,socialists and labors; )


1920s: urbanand modern culture

Background: more urban people than rural ones; popular culture andmass consumption


Jazz music: modern culture celebrated in cities, through radio

Consumerism: automobiles(replaced railroad industry,highway construction, commute to work); advertising; chainstores

Enterntainment: radio(NBC, radio station and radiosystem; share a common pop culture; fundamentalist also broadcast on radios);movie(Hollywood; movie theatres everywhere; talking pictures); heroes(sportsmanand actors; Charles Lindbergh’s flight)


Education: compulsory school laws


Cultural conflict:

Modernism vs. fundamentalism(creationist): scopes trial, scopes convicted;


Prohibition vs. bootlegs: Volstead act enforcing 18th,speakeasies; bootlegs; organized crime in Chicago; repealed during depression


Nativism vs. new immigrants: eastern and southern Europe postwarimmigration escalated; quota acts of 1921 and 1924; sacco and Vanzetti;resurgence of KKK


Lost generation literature:(hemingway fitzgernald sinclairlewis etc.)post war disillusionment; hate materialism and business society


Art: form follow function construction; Lloyd wright


Harlem renaissance: NY; jazz music(ellington Armstrong);

poets(hughs); black nationalism and separatism(marcusgarvey); web and NAACP


Great depression: depression mentality (feel of insecurity and economicconcern, even after depression); dust bowl and okies(John steinbeck’s thegrapes of wrath)


Cold war(1945-1952):

Baby boom: explosion in marriage and birth; confidence of postwar era

Suburb growth: William levitt and Levittown on long island (NY);cheaper constructions make houses affordable for most middle class families


Sunbelt: rise of war time defense industry states


Eisenhower(1952-1960):conformity

Lifestyle: white flight and suburbanization; common possession ofautomobile; white collar jobs(teamwork and confomity)


Entertainment related to car: leisure tourism; fastfood; car cinema; motel;


Entertainment related to TV: Conformity (youth culture-rock music, elvispresley, rebellious; common content); advertisement(common material wants,standardized products); comedy shows; professional sports;


Social criticism: William whyte, the organization man(loss ofindividuality); J d salinger, the catcher in the rye(against conformity,phoniness); beat generation(rebel against social standard; jack Kerouac, on theroad)


1960s:

Environmental conservation: richel Carson, silentspring; cean air and water laws during LBJ


Urban life: continued white flight and massive black riots during65-68; leave city with bad infrastructure and black ghettos


Student movement: SDS(port huron statement-participatory demo inuniversity; new left); student protest(Berkeley-free speech movement, endcollege restriction on student politic; demonstration aga viet war-close downcampus due to protest);


Counterculture: participants(young rebellious people);feature(rebellious dress; music; drug; communal life; music festival);form(hippies; flower children); celebrity(bob Dylan; beatles); ideal(democracy;aga authority, racism and war; radical solutions);


Sexual revolution: casual sex(popular culture-movie and magazine;medicine aga disease; contraception; premature sex); loosenedrestriction(abortion; homo);


Conflict: viet war(hawks-containment necessary; doves-undemocratic, doomed great society; students- protest on campus); war issue;race issue; generation gap;


1970s:

Nixon:

Protest aga Cambodia invasion: kent state collegeprotest- kill 4;


Cater:

Taxpayers’ revolt- inflation and higher tax for middleclass

aging population- conservative rise and decline ofyouth culture and liberalism in 1960s;

cultural pluralism: diverse ethnic and culture groups celebrate uniquevalues and traditions; see doc “civil rights”;


environmental movement:

cause: oil spill(Exxon); nuclear leak(three mile island; Chernobyl);result(question tech progress; care for pollution and environ);


protective legislation: clean air act(70); environmental protection agency(70);clean water act(72);


    以上就是100留学为大家带来SATII美国历史主线资料之cultureworks and lifestyle,更多SATII备考内容,请继续关注100留学教育。


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