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SAT阅读整篇理解总结类题目(Summary)

2016-09-18 12:44

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总结类题目(Summary)

小结题考查对文章内容、观点、结构的总结。故在阅读的时候,不仅要关注细节内容,也要关注文章的big picture(大意),要特别注意文章在哪里引出观点,又在哪里发生了内容的转变等等。为了更好地理解文章结构,我们建议在阅读过程中划线或做标记。另外,要注意转折类词汇、证据以及例子。


转折类连接词往往标志着作者叙述或观点的转变,而通过例子和证据,读者能够更好理解作者的论证过程。


以下就是100留学为大家带来的SAT阅读整篇理解总结类题目(Summary),希望对各位的备考有所帮助:


小结题的出题形式大致如下:

Which of the following provides the mostreasonable summary of the passage?

Which of the following provides the bestsummary of the arguments?

Which of the following best describes thestructure of the arguments in this passage?

Which of the following best describes thestructure of the passage as a whole?

我们来看一例:


This passage is adapted fromCindi May, “The Surprising Problem of Too Much Talent.” ©2014 by ScientificAmerican.


Whetheryou're the owner of the Dallas Cowboys or

captain of the playground dodge ball team, thegoal in

picking players is the same: Get the toptalent. Hearts have

been broken, allegiances tested, and budgetsbusted as teams

contend for the best athletes. The motivationfor recruiting

peak performers are obvious—exceptional playersare the key

to team success—and this belief is shared notonly by

coaches and sports fans, but also bycorporations, investors,

and even whole industries. Everyone wants ateam of stars.

While there is no denying that exceptionalplayers can

put points on the board and enhance teamsuccess, new

research by Roderick Swaab and colleaguessuggests there is

a limit to the benefit top talents bring to ateam. Swaab and

colleagues compared the amount of individualtalent on

teams with the teams’ success, and they foundstriking

examples of more talent hurting the team.

The researchers looked at three sports:basketball, soccer,

and baseball. In each sport, they calculatedboth the

percentage of top talent on each team and theteams’ success

over several years. For example, theyidentified top NBA

talent using each player’s Estimated Wins Added(EWA), a

statistic commonly employed to capture aplayer’s overall

contribution to his team, along with selectionfor the All-Star

tournament. Once the researchers determined whothe elite

players were, they calculated top-talentpercentage at the

team level by dividing the number of starplayers on the team

by the total number of players on that team.Finally, team

performance was measured by the team's win-lossrecord

over 10 years. For both basketball and soccer,they found

that top talent did in fact predict teamsuccess, but only up to

a point. Furthermore, there was not simply apoint of

diminishing returns with respect to top talent;there was in

fact a cost. Basketball and soccer teams withthe greatest

proportion of elite athletes performed worsethan those with

more moderate proportions of top level players.

Why is too much talent a bad thing? Thinkteamwork. In

many endeavors, success requires collaborative,cooperative

work towards a goal that is beyond thecapability of any one

individual. When a team roster is flooded withindividual

talent, pursuit of personal star status mayprevent the

attainment of team goals. The basketball playerchasing a

point record, for example, may cost the team bytaking risky

shots instead of passing to a teammate who isopen and ready

to score.

Two related findings by Swaab and colleaguesindicate

that there is in fact tradeoff between toptalent and teamwork.

First, Swaab and colleagues found that thepercentage of top

talent on a team affects intrateamcoordination. For the

basketball study, teams with the highest levelsof top

performers had fewer assists and defensiverebounds, and

lower field-goal percentages. These failures instrategic,

collaborative play undermined the team’seffectiveness. The

second revealing finding is that extreme levelsof top talent

did not have the same negative effect inbaseball, which

experts have argued involves much lessinterdependent play.

In the baseball study, increasing numbers ofstars on a team

never hindered overall performance. Togetherthese findings

suggest that high levels of top talent will beharmful in

arenas that require coordinated, strategicefforts, as the quest

for the spotlight may trump the teamwork neededto get the

job done.

The lessons here extend beyond the ball fieldto any

group or endeavor that must balance competitiveand

collaborative efforts, including corporateteams, financial

research groups, and brainstorming exercises.Indeed, the

impact of too much talent is even evident inother animals:

When hen colonies have too many dominant,high-producing

chickens, conflict and hen mortality rise whileegg

production drops. So before breaking the bankto recruit

superstars, team owners and industry expertsmight want to

consider whether the goal they are trying toachieve relies on

individual talent alone, or a cooperativesynergy from the

team. If the latter, it would be wise to reignin the talent and

focus on teamwork.




题目1

Which ofthe following best describes the structure of the passage as a whole?

(A) A collection of anecdotes about sports

(B) A description of a study and its potentialimplications

(C) A set of pieces of advice for managers insports and business

(D) A series of arguments in favor of changingrecruitment methods


题目2

Which ofthe following best summarizes the passage’s interpretation of the researchers’findings?

(A) Teamwork is the most important quality forsports teams.

(B) Individual talent is the most importantquality for sports teams.

(C) Individual talent matters, but teamwork canbe a decisive factor in some sports.

(D) Although individual talent is moreimportant, very strong teamwork can make up for weak talent.


解析:

两个问题都要求理解整篇文章的大意。我们先看下文本。

文本第一段描述一种现象,呈现了一个观点:即所有球队都争着招募比较好的球员,因为大家都认为团队取胜的关键在于优秀的选手。


文本第二段先让步,然后给出一个新观点,反驳第一段的观点:优秀球员带给团队的作用有限,团队中优秀球员太多反而伤害球队。


文本第三段开始举例论证。研究人员研究了三种运动:篮球,足球和棒球。第三段得出的研究结果是,在篮球和足球运动中,优秀球员占比高的球队表现不如优秀球员占比适中的球队。第四段第五段解释原因,原文的关键词是团队协作。同时,指出对于棒球这种对团队协作依赖小的运动,优秀球员多不会阻碍团队表现。


比较后一段将研究结果拓展至更广泛的领域,并表示要权衡好竞争与合作的关系。


然后看题目:题目1问的是文本结构。

选项A:一系列体育轶事。文本不是一个接一个地呈现体育类的故事。不符。

选项B:对一项研究的描述以及思考。文本第二段表达观点,第三段具体描述研究,第四至第六段是对研究结果的思考。该项正确。

选项C: 给体育界与商界的经理的一系列忠告。文本侧重的不是忠告,而是研究反驳一个人们持有的惯常观点。

选项D: 一系列改变招聘方法的观点。文本并未呈现很多的关于招聘方法的观点。另外,文本重心不在招聘方法,而在影响结果。

故选项B正确。


再看第二题:题目2要求总结文本对于研究人员的发现。

选项A不符,对于足球篮球类运动,团队协作非常重要,但是对于棒球类运动,团队协作不如个人能力重要。

选项B不符,选项B刚好与选项A相反,理由同上。

选项C正确,正确表达了文本研究的观点。在一些诸如足球篮球的运动中,团队协作是关键。

选项D不符,文本并未表达个人能力比团队协作更重要的观点,而是要依据实际的运动或情况来看。

故选项C正确


以上就是100留学为大家带来的SAT阅读整篇理解总结类题目(Summary),更多SAT阅读考试技巧备考内容,请继续关注100留学。


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(文章内容摘选自
《新SAT非官方指南》

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