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SAT考试必备核心语法之动词和时态

2016-09-23 15:37

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摘要:动词是表述一个动作的词汇,特殊的动词还有情态动词、助动词,动词往往作为谓语是一个句子不可或缺的部分。



    动词是表述一个动作的词汇,特殊的动词还有情态动词、助动词,动词往往作为谓语是一个句子不可或缺的部分。与汉语不同的是英语中的动词对于单复数和时态非常重视,


以下就是100留学为大家带来的SAT考试必备核心语法之动词和时态,希望对各位的备考有所帮助


单复数需要和相对应的主语(也就是动作的施力者)的单复数保持一致,时态上需要考虑的内容比较多:动作发生的时间,动作对于现在的影响,是否为普遍规律


知识点1

谓语必须存在。每个句子都会有谓语,但是在长度较长结构较复杂的句子中,尤其是如果包含现在分词或者过去分词的时候,会比较难判断一个句子到底有没有谓语,或者到底哪个才是真正的谓语。在关注谓语问题的同时不能忽视主语是否存在。

比如:The electron named in 1894.

这是一个彻底错误的句子,句子有主语theelectron,但是没有合适的谓语动词,确实这里的named可以是谓语动词,但是named做谓语动词那就是及物动词,但是该句中named后面没有宾语。因此错误。

改正的方法可以是改变谓语动词或者改变主语。

Stoneynamed the electron in 1894.

Theelectron was named in 1894.

一个句子可以是另外一个句子的一部分,但是这个句子需要以一个连词或者一个从句的引导词开始。


例题1

He convinced twenty-two of his colleagues tomove from New York to Virginia to participate in this experiment inbartering.

A. NO CHANGE

B. Virginia. In order to

C. Virginia. To

D. Virginia; to

解析1

A正确in orderto相当于后接一个目的状语从句。句子主语He,谓语convinced

B不正确,因为后面的句子是In orderto participate in this experiment in bartering.没有主语没有谓语

C理由同B

D分号后面应该也是个句子

因此A


例题2

Since the Pategonia-Sonoita CreekPreserve in southwestern Arizona has a diversity of vegetation- valley, desert,and mountain-and provides habitat for a wide range of wildlife that includes:mountain lions, coyotes, tortoises, rare fish, and some 300 species of birds.

A. NO CHANGE

B. Although the

C. While the

D. The

解析2

ABC都谈到了一个从句和主句之间的关系,但是我们先不需要着急去找到从句和主句是什么关系,而是需要先看清楚句子的结构是什么。

破折号里面是插入语,因此可以去除,谓语就是has adiversity of vegetation and provides habitat for a wide range of wildlife. 此外没有所谓的主句。因此没有所谓的主句和从句之分,整个句子只有一个主句,主语应该就是thePategonia-Sonoita Creek Preserve in southwestern Arizona,没有连词。

如果ABC正确的话,整个句子还需要一个主句,现在的句子只能做从句。

因此D


知识点2

主谓一致是SAT的重要考点,每个句子都会有一个主语和一个谓语动词,这就意味着主谓一致几乎随处可见。比如

The dogwith the grey ears runs out of the house.

主语是the dog, with the grey ears是修饰主语的短语,因此谓语动词要遵循主语,采用单数形式。谓语动词不是一个modifier因此不需要考虑就近原则。

主谓一致有两个要点:make sense, agree in number

Makesense的意思是主谓必须是可以搭配的,主语可以成为谓语的施力者。比如

Thedevelopment of a hydrogen car based on expected performance parameters will beable to travel hundreds of miles without refueling.

一眼看上去,句子好像是说有个车怎么怎么厉害能跑出一个很厉害的里程出来。

但是我们仔细看的话,真正的主语是thedevelopment, 但是谓语是will beable to travel,真正能travel的是人或者是交通工具,而不可以是一个交通工具的发展进程作为主语。因此可以这样修改:

Oncedeveloped, a hydrogen CAR based on expected performance parameters will be ableto travel hundreds of miles without refueling.

Agree innumber的意思是在单复数上一致。比如

The dogruns out of the house.

The dogsrun out of the house.

由于一般情况下考生都已经掌握这个知识点不会犯低级错误,因此如果需要考出难度的话,试题可能会隐藏主语或者将几个有点似是而非的主语放在一起让读者不知道什么是真正的主语。尽管SAT考试难度不大,一般主语都比较明显,不过这不妨碍我们了解一些怎样去隐藏主语或者让主语confusereaders。比如Thediscovery of new medicines vital to the company’s growth这个时候主语还是明显的,但是如果developmentnew medicines都有很多定语修饰,句子长度太长以后,就可以很好地起到迷惑读者的作用

方法:怎样去解决一个长难句中出现的主谓一致的考点?

首先是心态上的准备,很多考生非常讨厌长难句,这样读到长难句就很紧张,自然很难正确回答问题。长难句出现的好处有不少,比如长难句提供的信息相对比较多,无论是句中的单词还是上下文的单词的意思如果不明确的话,可以通过上下文的推断推理出来,比如长难句一般会包含多个划线部分,读懂一句话可以回答两个问题,非常划算。等等。

其次是方法的准备,在已经理解主谓一致的makesense agree in number的基础上,我们最需要掌握的方法就是eliminatethe middlemen and skip the warmup

Middlemen就是在句子中主语和谓语中间干扰判断的部分,warmup就是在句子主语前预热,但并不是主语的部分。最主要的几个类型是:

介词短语,如:


Of mice

For milk

By 1800

InZambia

With her

At thatlevel

To thestore

On theirorders

From theoffice


比如Near Galway, the houses onthe road to Spiddle is/are gorgeous.

把介词短语去掉以后,成为the houses is/are gorgeous. 显然应该选are.

从句,如:who which,注意这些句子不可以独立成句,从句和主句没有关系,因此整个从句可以去掉。

比如When the auditors left, theexecutive who had been interviewed was/were good.

去掉从句以后,就是the executive was/were good.因此was

现在分词或者过去分词做状语

比如Limping, the horse onceconsidered one of the favorites was/were taken away.

去掉以后,就是the horse was/were takenaway.


例题3

These may include the playwright, director,vocal and movement coaches, technical crew, and costume, set, and lightingdesigners. Some productions has involvement of the input of adramaturge.

A. NO CHANGE

B. involve

C. involves

D. have involve

解析3

AC肯定是错误的,因为主谓不一致,D的时态和前面的句子不一致错误。因此B


例题4

The hours the average American spend workinghave increased dramatically since the 1970s, making it hard for many workers toget a good night’s sleep.

A. NO CHANGE

B. have spent

C. spends

D. are spent

解析4

现在分词making it hard for manyworkers to get a good night’s sleep是修饰这个主句,不对这个句子的主要成分产生作用,因此删去。主句的谓语动词是haveincreased,主语是hours,因此划线部分是修饰主语的,只需要关注这个修饰部分的主谓一致就可以了。修饰部分的主语是averageAmerican是单数名词,因此ABD都错。因此C


知识点3

其实例题4还反映了一点,那就是不管是在主句还是在每一个修饰语中都要维持主谓一致,在整个句子的结构中都要保持主谓一致。

比如The tidal forces to which anobject falling into a black hole is/are subjected is/are sufficient to tear theobject apart.


首先我们看主句,主语是the tidal forces, to which的部分是修饰这个主语的,谓语动词是is/aresufficient to tear the object apart根据主谓一致,这里的谓语应该用复数名词。修饰部分修饰的是tidalforces,修饰是to which an object fallinginto a black hole is/are subjected修饰句中的主语是object, 因此谓语是单数。因此is

句子最后是The tidal forces to which anobject falling into a black hole is subjected are sufficient to tear the objectapart.


知识点4

表达的概念有很多方式,但是主语不一定都是复数,因为用and连接两个并列的名词作为主语仅仅是一种方式,还有一些其他的方式。

首先我们看这两个句子

Joe andhis friends are going to the beach.

Joe withhis friends is going to the beach.

可以看到第二个句子虽然没有用and连词,但是仍然表达了复数的含义,但是谓语动词却因为主语是单数名词而使用单数形式,with这样用单数形式表达复数含义的词语有很多,称作additive phrases表达或的概念有很多词语或者短语,最常用的是or,either or, neither nor对于这三个短语来说,谓语动词和最靠近的名词单复数保持一致。比如

Neitherthe coach nor the players are going to the beach.

Neitherthe players nor the coach is going to the beach.

Eitherneither有时可以没有or单独出现在句中,此时句子的主语是单数,谓语动词采用单数形式。


集合名词作为句子的主语时,用单数的形式表达复数的含义。常见的集合名词如下:

人:agency, army, audience,class, committee, crowd, orchestra, team

物:baggage, citrus, equipment,fleet, fruit, furniture

在极少数的情况下,这些词可以被认为是复数名词(当强调个体而非整体时)但是在考试中无一例外他们都是当做单数名词,相应的谓语动词应该用单数形式。如:

Thecrowd in the stands is cheering loudly as the home team takes the field.

Our armyof a hundred soldiers is attacking the enemy.


不定代词就是指代的内容并非具体。常见的不定代词有anyone,nobody, each, something, everybody, whatever, whoever, neither,通常他们被视为单数名词,相应的谓语动词采取单数形式,但是也有特例,如some,any, none, all, more/most做主语的时候,谓语动词有可能是单数也有可能是复数,需要考虑句子的含义来判断。很多时候他们和of连用,就可以通过of后面的名词的单复数来辅助判断。比如

Some ofthe money was stolen from my wallet.

Some ofthe documents were stolen from the bank.

当然这不是说of后面的名词的单复数形式完全决定了谓语动词的单复数的形式。还是句意最重要,比如。

Any ofthese women is a suitable candidate for marriage to my son.

Any在这里作任何讲,强调的是任一个,因此谓语动词还是单数形式。


Each的情况要看each在句子中的成分,因为each可以充当的部分比较复杂,如果在句子中是作为一个主语出现那么谓语动词就是单数。如

Each doghas paws.

Each dogand cat has paws.

如果是作为一个副词出现,修饰这个主语,那么谓语动词还是按照主语的单复数来。比如:Theyeach are great tennis players.


数量词方面,the number of对应单数谓语动词,a number of对应复数谓语动词。如:

Thenumber of hardworking students is quite large.

A numberof students in this class are hard workers.

一些数量词像half, majority, minority,plurality到底是对应单数还是复数的谓语动词,有一点像some,需要看他们修饰的内容来判断单复数。如:

Half ofthe pie is blueberry, and half of the slices are already gone.

Themajority of the students in this class are hard workers.

In theSenate, the majority has coalesced into a unified voting bloc.


当主语是一个从句时,无论如何谓语动词都是单数形式。如:

Havinggood friends is a wonderful thing.

Whetherthey want to do is fine with me.


知识点5

谓语动词通常状况下都是在谓语动词后面的,但是这并不是绝对情况。有的时候句子通过改变句子成分的顺序可以让主语出现在谓语动词后面,这个时候如何选择对应的谓语动词就会困难。有一个简单的方法就是自己改写再进行还原。如原句:

Nearthose buildings sit a lonely house, inhabited by squatters.

不知道正确与否的情况下,可以先自己进行改写然后再还原成原句类似的形式

改写的是A lonely house, inhabited bysquatters, sits near those buildings.

再还原Near those buildings sits alonely house, inhabited by squatters.


例题5

用这个改写的方法判断下面句子的正确性。

There isa young man and an older woman at the bus stop.

解析5

很多考生在记忆就近原则的时候往往还加上一个there be句型,这次改写就可以说明there be句型到底符合不符合就近原则。

改写的句子是A young man and an olderwoman are there at the bus stop.

还原后就是There are a young man and anolder woman at the bus stop.


知识点6

常见的比较confusing的主语表达对应的谓语动词单复数情况

例题6

判断下面句子是否主谓一致,是否是合适的谓语,如果不是,请修改。

1.  Thetraveling salesman was dismayed to learn that neither his sons nor hisdaughter were

interested in moving.

2.  I wasso thirsty that either of the two drinks were fine with me.

3.  Avenomous snake designated the emblem of the rebellion by the insurgency.

4.  Anumber of players on the team have improved since last season.

5.  Jack,along with some of his closest friends, is sharing a limo to the prom.

6.  Therecent string of burglaries, in addition to poor building maintenance, haveinspired the outspoken resident to call a tenants meeting.

7.  Thereis, according to my doctor, many courses of treatment available to me.

8.  Afterall the gardening we did, the sun shining on the flowerbeds make abeautiful sight.

9.  Theplacement of the unusual artwork in the mansion's various rooms wasimpressive.

10.  Anew textbook focused on recent advances in artificial intelligence assignedby our instructor.

11.  Justaround the corner is a fantastic bakery and a small supermarket.

12. Planting all these seeds is more involved than I thought.

13. Whoever rented these movies has to take them back beforemidnight.

14. Tired of practicing, the orchestra decide to walk out on theirastonished conductor.

15.  Theproliferation of computer games designed to involve many players at once werefirst developed before the widespread availability of high-speedinternet connections.

解析6

1. 第一个was使用正确,第二个were不正确,nor应该就近,靠近的是his daughter单数名词,应该改作The traveling salesman wasdismayed to learn that neither his sons nor his daughter was interested inmoving.

2. 第一个was正确,第二个were不对,因为从句的主语是either,谓语动词应该是单数。句子改为I was sothirsty that either of the two drinks was fine with me.

3. 第一个designated不正确,应该改作was designated因为designate是一个人才能做动作的谓语动词,蛇是对象,应该是被动语态。改Avenomous snake was designated the emblem of the rebellion by the insurgency.

4. 正确,a numberof对应复数谓语动词。

5. 正确,alongwithadditive phrase,谓语动词参照被修饰的主语。

6. 第一个haveinspired不对,因为string是单数名词,The recent string ofburglaries, in addition to poor building maintenance, has inspired theoutspoken resident to call a tenants meeting.

7. 第一个is不对,可以改变语序According to my doctor, manycourses of treatment are there available to me. 因此应该为Thereare, according to my doctor, many courses of treatment available to me.

8. 第一个make不对,因为sun shining这个属于主语从句,谓语动词一定是单数。应该改为Afterall the gardening we did, the sun shining on the flowerbeds makes a beautifulsight.

9. 正确,主语是theplacement单数名词。

10. 第一个assigned不正确,因为该谓语动词的主语应该是人,但是这里主语却不是人,应该被动语态。应该改为A newtextbook focused on recent advances in artificial intelligence was assigned byour instructor.

11. 第一个is不对,调整语序,a fantastic bakery and asmall supermarket are just around the corner.因此正确的表达为Justaround the corner are fantastic bakery and a small supermarket.

12. 正确,现在分词做主语,谓语动词单数。

13. 正确,主语是从句,谓语动词单数。

14. 第一个decide不正确,orchestra是集体名词,谓语动词单数,应该改为Tired ofpracticing, the orchestra decides to walk out on its astonished conductor.

15. 修饰games的没有问题,该句的问题在于主语是proliferation,但是从句意来看并非如此。应该改为Computergames designed to involve many players at once have proliferated; such gameswere first developed before the widespread availability of high-speed internetconnection.


知识点7

SAT语法考点中,经常出现的就是时态问题了。常见的时态有一般现在时态,一般过去时态,一般将来时态,现在进行时态,现在完成时态,过去完成时态,过去进行时态这七种,英语中一共有十六种时态,但是大多复杂的时态和SAT考试没有关系。知识点8

一般现在时态通常用在以下情况:

A) 表示现阶段或经常性的动作状态,

He goesto school by bike every day.

B) 表示客观真理,如

Theearth goes around the sun.

C) 表示计划,决定,时刻表,如

Thetrain leaves at 17:40.

D) 用在时间、条件、方式、让步状语从句表示将要发生的动作。

If youspeak slowly, I understand.

If itdoesn’t rain tomorrow, we’ll go on a picnic.


一般过去时,表示过去的事情,过去的习惯,常在以下情况使用

A) 表示过去完成的事情或者存在的状态,如

I methim last month.

Shelooked well when I last saw her.

B) 描述几个相继发生的动作,如

I alwaysgot up too late, washed my face, had a quick breakfast and hurried to school.

一般将来时,表示一个将要发生的动作或者状态。

A) 表示将要发生的事情,如

I willsee you tomorrow.

B) 表示打算准备做某件事,如

He isgoing to be a doctor when he grows up.

C) 即将

She isabout to go home.

D) 表示计划决定要求

You areto get here before 6.


现在进行时,表示说话时或者现阶段内正在进行的动作或者存在的状态。

A) 说话时动作正在进行

I am awriting a letter.

B) 表示现阶段内正在进行的动作

Theworkers are building a building.

C) 表示已经具体的计划,安排

She isleaving for Beijing this evening.

D) 表示特定的感情色彩

We arelooking forward to seeing you again.


现在完成时

A) 表示动作已经发生,动作的结果对于现在仍然有影响,经常与already,yet, now, just, by this time连用。

He hasphoned me about the theft.

He hasturned off the light.

B) 表示一个动作在过去发生一直持续到现在

I havelearned English for more than 6 years.

C) 强调持续性

(correct)He has been in Beijing for 5 years.

(incorrect)He has come to Beijing for 5 years.

D注意since引导的从句如果是持续性动词,表示这行为的终止,如果是瞬间动词,表示这个行为的开始。

It’sweeks since I feel ill. 我生病好几周了。

It’sweeks since I was ill. 我病好了好几周了。


过去进行时

A) 过去某时正在进行的时态或者动作。

Theywere singing songs from seven to nine last night.

B) when引导的时间状语从句表示某一个时刻,一个动作发生时,另一个动作正在进行,或者某一个动作正在进行时突然发生另一件事。

It wasraining when they arrived at the station.

C) while引导的时间状语从句,常表示过去某一时刻发生的事情是可以延续的或者同时发生的,此时,主句和从句的谓语动词都可用过去进行时。

He asselling the newspaper while he was waiting for the bus.


过去完成时

A)表示某一个动作或者状态在过去某一时间或者动作之前已经完成或者结束

When Iwoke up, it had stopped raining.

B)表示某一个动作或者状态在某时之前已经开始,一直延续到这一过去时间,并且动作尚未结束仍然有继续下去的可能。

By theend of last year, he had worked in the factory for 20 years.

C)用于hardly when, no sooner than刚,就或者It was the first time that等句型中

We hadno sooner left the room than they began to talk about him,

We hadhardly begun when we were told to stop.

It wasthe first time that he had ever spoken to me in such a tune.


例题7

Genetically-modified agricultural products aremore or less the norm today, and the achievements in genetically-modifiedagriculture are all the work of bioinformatics.

A. NOCHANGE

B. Is

C.

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