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SAT考试必备核心语法之形容词和副词

2016-09-23 15:40

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摘要:副词在句子中不可能作为一个句子的主要成分,形容词除了在S+V+P中充当表语之外,也不可能在句子中充当一个主要的成分。


副词在句子中不可能作为一个句子的主要成分,形容词除了在S+V+P中充当表语之外,也不可能在句子中充当一个主要的成分。因此形容词和副词也很难成为重要的考点。


以下就是100留学为大家带来的SAT考试必备核心语法之形容词和副词

,希望对各位的备考有所帮助


知识点1

很多形容词都是以-ing或者-ed结尾的,比如说boringbored。一般情况下,强调人的情绪状态需要用bored,强调某件事物引发人的情感,要用boring。再如

The newswas shocking.

I wasshocked when I heard the news.


例题1

在下面的句子中选择合适的形容词

I wasdisappointing/disappointed with the film. I had expected it to be better.

Are youinteresting/interested in football?

It’ssometimes embarrassing/embarrassed when you have to ask people for money.

Why doyou always look so boring/bored? Is your life really so boring/bored?

解析1

我令电影失望/对电影失望,后者

I wasdisappointed with the film. I had expected it to be better.

你令足球感到有趣/对足球感到有趣,后者

Are youinterested in football?

When youhave to ask people for help令人尴尬/尴尬人,前者

It’ssometimes embarrassing when you have to ask for money.

你看起来令人感到无聊/无聊,生活令人无聊/无聊其他人,分别是后者,前者

Why doyou always look so bored? Is your life really so boring?


知识点2

有的时候我们会同时用许多形容词去修饰一个名词,对于这些形容词修饰的顺序,我们曾经在第一章总论中有介绍,但是过于复杂并且难以记忆。事实上,在SAT考试中针对形容词排列顺序的考点并不是非常多,也不需要记住过多复杂的规则。

我们先看两个例子

Mybrother lives in a nice new house.

形容词排列的顺序是美丑,新旧

In thekitchen there was a beautiful large round wooden table.

形容词排列的顺序是美丑,大小,形状,材质

有什么规律呢?可以发现形容词的排列遵循着相对主观的形容词排在相对客观的形容词前面,越客观的形容词越靠近修饰的名词。

事实上,形容词可以分成两个类型,一个是opinion就是我们说的比较主观的部分,还有一个是fact就是我们说的比较客观的部分。有的时候我们会遇到比较多的fact类型的名词,这个时候的顺序最好是how big,how old, what color, where from, what is it made of, 另外多种颜色之间需要加and,一般描述大小的词在描述形状之前。


知识点3

我们除了用形容词修饰名词之外,有的时候形容词还会直接跟上动词,这个时候,形容词往往充当表语的部分。当然这种类型的谓语动词也是有特殊要求的。

第一类表示变化的动词,after, become, get, seem,

Becareful!

I amtired and I am getting hungry.

As thefilm went on, it became more and more boring.

Yourfriend seems very nice.

第二类是系动词,即动作(起来),如look,feel, sound, taste, smell

You lookgood.

Thedinner smells good.

This teatastes a bit strange.


知识点4

副词除了修饰动词之外,也可以修饰其他很多词性的词语或者短语。除了形容词能修饰的名词或者代词之外,副词基本可以修饰其他任意词性的词或短语。当然副词也可以修饰形容词,这个时候副词修饰的是形容词而不是名词。

Why doyou never take seriously?

Thechildren were playing happily.

It’s areasonably cheap restaurant and the food is extremely cheap.


因为有的词兼有形容词和副词的词形变化形式,所以具体选择adj+adj+n还是adv+adj+n的形式需要我们仔细考虑句意。我们在modifier中详细讨论了这个问题,这里做一个简单的回顾。


例题2

判断对错

James Joyce is Max’s supposedly Irish ancestor.

James Joyce is Max’s supposed Irish ancestor.

Max’s grandfather is his supposedly Irishancestor.

Max’s grandfather is his supposed Irishancestor.

解析2

12句一组,34句一组考查的都是在adj+adj+nadv+adj+n中抉择的问题。

12句中James Joyce可能是也可能不是Max的祖先,但一定是Irish,因此supposed表明是祖先还是不是祖先,修饰祖先。

34句已经说明了是他的祖父,因此肯定会是Ancestor问题在是不是一定是Irish,所以祖先不再需要修饰,而Irish是应该需要被修饰的。

因此12句中12对,34句中3对,4错。这也需要我们在练习中和考试中认真思考,不能看到adv+adj+n或者adj+adj+n的任一个时候就秒选

我们同时也需要准备一些可以在形容词和副词之间转换比较自由的词,往往其中一个词性出现在句子中的时候会引起歧义或者wordy,这里也看到GMCC法则和最优选项的指导意义。

这些词是corresponding,frequent, independent, rare, recent, seeming, separate, significant, supposed,usual等,需要尤其注意。


知识点4

有的时候部分副词+过去分词可以表达复合形容词的意思,比如good的副词well,如

Well-dressed, well-known, well -educated


知识点5

形容词加上ly在很多时候意味着相对应的副词,但是也有例外。

最常见的是hardhard做形容词的意思是坚定的,坚固的,做副词的意思是刻苦地。但是hardlyhard没有什么关系,hardly的意思是几乎不。如

Sarahwasn’t very friendly at the party. She hardly spoke to me.

句子等于She spoke to me very little,almost not at all.

Hard hardly真的没有关系,我们可以看这两个句子。

He triedhard to find a job, but he had no luck. (He tried a lot, with a lot of effort.)

I am notsurprised he didn’t find a job. He hardly tried to find one. (He tried verylittle.)

Hardly的用法很多,虽然选项中出现概率不高,但是对理解句意非常重要。

Hardlyany几乎没有,这里的any也可以使anybody, anyone, anything比如

She saidhardly anything.

Couldhardly do太难,几乎不可能,比如

My legwas hurting me. I could hardly walk.

Hardlyever 几乎从未,比如

I amnearly always at home in the evenings. I hardly go out.

Hardly还有肯定没有的意思。比如

It’shardly surprising that you are tired. You haven’t slept for three days. 一点都不奇怪,certainly not.


知识点6

Sosuch

So可以用来修饰形容词和副词,such用来形容名词,因此可以出现such+adj+n,当有定冠词时,因为such是修饰名词,因此应该出现在定冠词前。如

Such abig dog

而用so的话,需要定语后置,a dog so big

So such让形容词或者副词的意思加强。So that结构也可以that可以省略。Such that

The bookwas so good that I couldn’t put it down.

It wassuch a good book that I couldn’t put it down.

Such so 还可以表示LIKE THIS的含义


Enoughtoo

Enough在修饰形容词和副词时候,在形容词或者副词后面,修饰名词时候在名词前面。

I can’trun very far. I am not fit enough.

I can’trun very far. I haven’t got enough energy.

有的时候我们可以独立使用enough,省略了名词的情况。

We don’tneed any more money. We’ve got enough.

比较enough to too to两个结构,前者表示足够……能,后者表示太……而不能

Enough/tooto do sth.不能后接fordoing sth.

Enoughto句子主语往往在意思上也是主语,Too to句子主语往往在意思上是被动的,如

I haveenough courage to overcome the problem.

Theboxes are too heavy to carry.


Quite, pretty, rather, fairly

都可以表达相当的意思quitepretty在意思上非常接近,pretty在口语中更常用。Quite 往往在定冠词前面,而pretty在定冠词后面。比如

We live in quite an old house.

We live in a pretty old house.

Quite还可以用在quitea/an noun.不需要形容词。比如

I didn’t expect to see them. It was quite a surprise. 这里等于quite a big surprise

在比如quite alot of

There were quite a lot of people at the meeting.

Quite+verb. 也是可以的,尤其是likeenjoy

I quite like tennis, but it’s not my favorite sport.

Ratherquite,pretty类似,但是一般用于否定的语态中。比如

The weather isn’t so good. It’s rather cloudy.

Paul is rather shy. He doesn’t talk very much.

rather用作肯定的表达的时候,意思是不寻常地,令人惊讶地

These oranges are rather good. Where did you get them?

Fairly 相对来说程度要轻一些,比如说fairlygood意思是还不错但是还可以变得更好。

My room is fairly big, but I’d prefer a bigger one.

We see each other fairly often, but not as often as we used to.


Quite 还有其他含义,completely,可以修饰很多形容词,部分动词(agree)

比如I quiteagree with you.


知识点7

关于比较级和最高级,很多形容词和副词都有比较级和最高级,我们将在句子结构中详细介绍。


知识点8

还有一些表示语气的副词,比如still, yet, already, even等等

Still表示存在一个状态或者动作在持续,并没有改变状态或者停止动作。如

It’s teno’clock and Joe is still in bed.

When Iwent to bed, Chris was still working.

Do youstill want to go away or have you changed your mind?

Still往往在句子的中间,紧连着动词。


Anymore/ any longer/ no longer

Not anymore或者not any longer说明状态改变了或者动作停止了,any moreany longer都在句子的最后。比如

Lucydoesn’t work here any more. She left last month.

We usedto be good friends, but we aren’t any more.

也可以用no longer或者no more(出现次数比较少)

Lucy nolonger works here.

We areno longer friend.这里可以看出no more有的时候会引起歧义,因此少用。


Yet

Yet=untilnow直到现在的意思。我们主要用在否定句中。

He isn’there yet.

或者问句

Is hehere yet?

Yet反应了说话者希望一些事情发生,常常在句尾。

It’s 10o’clock and Joe isn’t here yet.

Have youmet your new neighbors yet?

“Whereare you going for your holidays?” “We don’t know yet.”

常用语现在完成时态,作为完成时态的一个时间上的标志。如

Have youmet your classmates yet?

Stillyet比较的时候,still是表示肯定的句子常见,yet是表示否定的句子常见。Still常在句中,yet常在句尾。比如

Mikelost his job six months ago and is still unemployed.

Mikelost his job six months ago and hasn’t found another job yet.


Already 说某件事情发生的比预料得早,常在句中出现。

“Whattime is Sue leaving?” ”She has already left.”

Shall Itell Joe what happened or does he already know.

I’veonly just had lunch and I’m already hungry.


知识点9

Even用来表示一种惊讶的态度。比如

Thesephotographs are really awful. Even I take better photographs than these.

Healways wears a coat-even in hot weather.

Nobodywould help her-not even her best friend.=Not even her best friend would helpher.

有的时候可以加比较级

I got upvery early, but Jack got up even earlier.

I knew Ididn’t have much money, but I’ve got even less than I thought.

Eventhough, even wheneven if都起到一个加强的作用。



习题

1. All airports are full of signs—you can parkhere, but you can't park here; your gate is this way; drop your bags here —butAtlanta s has surprisingly 18lesser.

A) NO CHANGE

B) less

C) few

D) a few


答案

1.A选项lesser是可以被surprisingly修饰的,但是这里的lesser缺少指代对象,因为对象是signs

B选项错误和A类似

C选项中的signs可以用few修饰,前文说机场里到处都是signs这里转折说亚特兰大几乎没有,确实是转折

D选项中signs可以用a few修饰,但是没有非常明显的转折关系,相对于C来说不够好。

因此C


    以上就是100留学为大家带来的SAT考试必备核心语法之形容词和副词,更多SAT阅读考试技巧备考内容,请继续关注100留学。


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(文章内容摘选自《新SAT非官方指南》

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