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SAT考试必备核心语法之连词

2016-09-23 15:52
摘要:连词是连接词和词、词组和词组或者句子和句子表示某种逻辑关系的虚词。连词可以表示并列关系、承接、转折、因果、选择、假设、比较、让步等关系。


连词是连接词和词、词组和词组或者句子和句子表示某种逻辑关系的虚词。连词可以表示并列关系、承接、转折、因果、选择、假设、比较、让步等关系。


以下就是100留学为大家带来的SAT考试必备核心语法之连词,希望对各位的备考有所帮助


知识点1

在词、短语和句子需要连接的时候,需要使用连词。如:

I studyEnglish and Chinese.

Does hework at school or in the hospital?

I get upearly, but my brother gets up late.


知识点2

连词分成两类,一类是连词and, but, or, so, (for),连词词组either or, neither nor, notonly  but alsoboth andas well as 连词前后的部分是并列的关系。另一类是从属连词,连接的部分有偏重,往往就是一个主句和一个从句,但是主要想说明的还是主句。这些词语有that,whether, if, unless, while, when, until, because, so that, though, although,even if, as, 注意主句可以单独存在,从句不能单独存在。比如:

Becausehe worked hard, he made a lot of money.

可以单独存在He made a lot of money.

但是不可以单独存在Because he worked hard.


例题1

The Aurelian Wall featured eighteen largegateways permitting both foot and chariot traffic in and out of the city. Inother words, a serious of 381 towers and eleven smaller side gates calledposterns were evenly spaced along the rest of the wall.

A. NO CHANGE

B. Therefore, a

C. Instead, a

D. A

解析1

A换句话说就是上下文说的都是一件事情,上文说的有十八个大门方便步行和交通,下文说的是381个塔和11个小门,并不是一件事情

B没有因果关系

C没有转折关系

D当句子的其他选项没有正确的关系时,不一定需要连词

因此D


知识点3

从属连词中有许多可能会引导状语从句的连词这些从句中的连词都是从属连词,从句表达的内容和主句来说,并不是那么重要,而主句是真正需要表达或者强调的意思。

某种程度来说,这些从句也相当于modifier,因为我们可以看这两个句子。

After Icome to this country, I make some new friends.

Aftercoming to this country, I make some new friends.

两个句子的主句都是后面的部分,第一个句子前面是时间状语从句,第二个句子前面是modifier,都是修饰后面句子的作用。

注意第一个句子前面的时间状语从句内部有自己的主语,不必像第二个句子那样modifier的谓语动词还要和主语主谓一致保持makesense


知识点4

1. 引导时间状语从句的连词

(1)when    

Herfather died when she was young. 她很小的时候父亲就死了。

I'llwrite when I have finished the book. 我把书看完了再写信。

(2) while   

Make hay while the sun shines. 行事要趁机会好;未雨绸缪。

Brent felt chilly while he was walking. 布伦特走着时感到有些凉意。

(3) as

As he slept he dreamed a dream. 他睡觉时做了一个梦。

As I was coming here, I met your brother. 我来这里时碰到了你哥哥。

(4) before  

We can't possibly finish this before the rains start. 雨季开始前我们不可能干完这活儿。

Long before you return, she will have forgotten you. 在你回来前,她会早已把你忘了。

(5) after

Soon after she returned, the child vomited. 她回来不久孩子就吐了。

After we had finished tea, we all sat on the grass. 我们喝完茶后,都在草地上坐着。

I will tell them after you leave / have left. 你走了之后我再告诉他们。

(6) until

I watched him until he disappeared from sight. 我望着他直到他看不见了。

I shall stay until I've completed my studies. 我要在这里待到我学习结束为止。

(7) till

Let's wait till the rain stops. 咱们等到雨停吧。

I'll keep it for you till you come back. 我将替你把这保存到你回来。

(8)since

Twoweeks had passed since Martin had seen him. 自从马丁见到他,已经过了两个礼拜。

Ihaven't seen you since I have been back. 我回来后就一直没见到你。

(9)whenever

WheneverI see him, I speak to him. 每当我见到他,我都和他讲话。

I go tothe theatre whenever I get the chance. 一有机会我就去看戏。

(10) 一些其他类型的时间状语从句

Hardlyhad he arrived when she started complaining. 他刚一到,她就开始发牢骚。

Now thatwe are alone, we can speak freely. 现在我们单独在一起,可以随便谈了。

Once youbegan, you couldn't stop. 你一旦开始就停不住了。

We hadno sooner set out than a thunderstorm broke. 我们刚出发就遇到了大雷雨。


知识点5

引导条件状语从句的连词

(1) if

I would have talked to him if I'd thought of it. 如果我想到了,我就和他谈了。

If she went, would you go too? 如果她去,你也会去吗?

(2) unless  

I shouldn't dream of going unless you wanted me. 我不会去,除非你要我去。

You will fail unless you work hard. 如果你不用功学习,你会不及格的。

(3) supposing

Supposing she doesn't come, what shall we do? 要是她不来,我们怎么办?

Supposing he can't come, who will do the work? 假使他不能来,这工作谁做?

(4) 条件状语从句还可有其他的形式

Brantwill do the work providing you pay him. 如果你能付费,布兰特可以做这工作。

As longas you're happy, it doesn't matter what you do. 只要你高兴,你做什么都没关系。

In caseI forget, please remind me about it. 如果我忘了,请提醒我。

注意

(1) 有些条件状语从句中也可省略某些成分或改成短语。如:

Ifnecessary, ring me at home. 如果有必要,可以打电话到我家找我。

If indoubt, ask at your local library. 若有疑问,你可向当地图书馆咨询。

He wouldnever do this unless compelled. 他绝不会做这事,除非是被迫如此。

In caseof fire, ring the bell. 如有火灾,按铃。

(2) 有些状语从句介于条件状语从句与让步状语从句之间。如:

The moonis a moon still whether it shines or not. 月亮总是月亮,不管它亮不亮。

It hasthe same result whichever way you do it. 不管你怎么做,结果都一样。

Whoeveryou are, you can't pass this way. 不管你是谁,你不能从这儿过去。


知识点6

引导目的状语从句的连词

(1) inorder that

In orderthat you may create such a picture, you have to possess certain artisticweapons. 创作这样的画,你得具有某些艺术手法。

I havecome all the way from Vienna in order that you should thoroughly understand me.我这么远从维也纳来,为的是让你彻底了解我。

(2) sothat    

So thatwe can arrive there on time, we should start off early. 为了按时赶到那里,我们必须早出发。

Casparwore a mask so that no one should recognize him. 卡斯帕戴了一个口罩,以至于没人能认出他。

(3)so    

I'llshow you so you can see how it's done. 我将做给你看,以便让你知道应怎样干。

I packedhim a little food so he wouldn't get hungry. 我包了一点食物给他,以免他挨饿。

(4)that    

Theyhave died that liberty might live. 他们倒下了,为的是自由能长存。

Shewanted tea ready at six that she could be out by eight. 她要在6点钟把下午茶准备好,以便她8点钟能出去。

(5) lestfor fearin case也可引起目的状语从句

I'll bekind to her lest she decides to leave me. 我要好好待她,以免她决定离开我。

Shut thewindow for fear that it may rain. 把窗子关好,以防下雨。

I shallsit up for a time, in case I'm wanted. 我暂时不睡,以防需要我。

注意这类从句有时可改为某种短语。如:

Go inquietly so as not to wake the baby. 悄悄走进去,以免把宝宝吵醒。

The wallwas built along the river in case of floods. 沿江筑了堤坝,以防有洪水。


知识点7

引导结果状语从句的连词

(1)so...that    

It wasso dark that they couldn't see each other's faces. 天是那样黑以至于他们看不见彼此的脸。

So bright was the moon that the flowers were bright as by day. 月亮是那样亮。花儿就像在白天那样鲜艳。

(2) such...that

It gave him such a shock that his face turned white. 这使他那样震惊,以至于他的脸都变白了。

His idea was such a good one that we all agreed to use it. 他的想法是那样好,我们都决定采用。

(3) sothat引导结果状语从句,表示因此

One ofher lungs is infected a little so that she has to rest. 她的一叶肺有点感染,因此她得休息。

Mypencil fell under my desk, so that I couldn't see it. 我的铅笔掉到书桌下面了,因此我看不到它。

(4) so引导结果状语从句,表示所以”“因此

The playbegan at eight, so they must dine at seven. 8点开,所以他们必须在7点吃饭。

You toldme to do it (and) so I did it. 你让我这样做,因此我这样做了。

注意:so that还可用另一种方式引起结果状语从句。如:

Hisheart beat so that he could hardly breathe. 他的心跳得如此厉害以至于都喘不过气了。   Explain it so that a 10-year-old child couldunderstand it. 解释成这样,使10岁的孩子都能听懂。

(5)otherwiseor elseorelse引起的分句也表示一种结果。

Give meback my money, otherwise I'll ring the police. 把钱还给我,否则我就给警察打电话了。 Run orelse you'll be late. 快跑,要不你就会迟到了。


知识点8

引导原因状语从句的连词

(1) because

Cheney distrusted me because I was new. 切尼不信任我,因为我是新来的。

You only do it because you have to. 你这样做是不得已。

(2) as

As all the seats were full, he stood up. 由于所有座位都有了人,他就站了起来。

We don't know what to do as we are not his parents. 我们不知该怎么办,因为我们不是他的父母。

(3) since

Since we've no money, we can't buy it. 由于我们没钱,我们无法购买它。

Since you are going, I will go too. 既然你去,我也去。

(4) seeing(that)considering(that)now that等词也可引起表示原因的从句

Seeing(that) she's lawfully old enough to get married, I don't see how we could stop her. 既然她已到了法定结婚的年龄,我不知道我们怎样能阻止她。

Considering he's only been learning English a year, he speaks it very well. 鉴于他才学了一年的英语,他英语讲得很好了。

Now that you have come, you may as well stay. 你既然来了,不妨留下。

(5) 常见的引导原因状语从句的形容词有: annoyed,ashamed, content, delighted, glad, hurt, pleased, satisfied, sorry, surprised

I'm glad you're back. 你回来了我很高兴。

I'm sorry I haven't done as much as I should. 很抱歉,我做得很不够。


知识点9

引导让步状语从句的连词

引导让步状语从句的连词主要有althoughthougheven though / ifwhile等。如:

(1) although

They are generous although they are poor. 尽管他们很穷却很大方。

Although still young, he is going very grey. 尽管他还年轻,他的头发却已变得灰白了。

(2) though

The speech is goodthough it could be better. 这次演讲不错,虽然还可以再好一点。

(3) even though

Even though it's hard work, I enjoyed it. 虽然工作艰苦,我还是很喜欢。

Ben went out, even though it was raining. 尽管在下雨,本还是出去了。

(4) even if

He felt all thiseven if he didn't find phrases to express it. 这一切他都感觉到了,尽管他找不出言语来表达。

They'll stand by you, even if you don't succeed. 即使你不成功,他们也会支持你。

(5)while

While we don't agree, we continue to be friends. 尽管我们意见不同,我们还是朋友。While I sympathize, I can't really do very much to help. 虽然我同情,我却不能帮什么忙。

(6) 让步状语从句也可以用ashowever等词来引导。

Much as he admired her looks and her manners, he had no wish to marry her. 虽说他很欣赏她的外貌和仪态,他却无心和她结婚。

However much they may desire it, they cannot express the sympathetic feelings. 尽管他们非常想这样做,却无法表达他们的同情。

(7) thoughalthough等引导的状语从句可改为短语。

The girl, though plain, had a good, kind face. 这姑娘虽说不漂亮,却有一张和蔼善良的脸。

I went on talking, though continually interrupted by Dussel. 尽管不断被杜塞尔打断,但我还继续谈着。

Ivan was very lovable although not very tidy. 伊凡很可爱,尽管不太整洁。



知识点10

引导方式状语从句的连词

引导方式状语从句的连词主要有aslikeas ifas though。如:

(1) as

I have changed it as you suggest. 我按照你的建议作了改变。

As you know, she wasn't much good at letter-writing. 正如你知道的,她不善于写信。    (2) like

Do it like he does. 像他那样做。

Jerry doesn't speak French like I speak it. 杰瑞讲法语的方式和我的不一样。

(3) as if

I love you as if you were my son. 我爱你就像你是我的儿子一样。

Grace looked a bit queer, as if she knew something. 格瑞丝显得有些古怪,仿佛她知道什么似的。

(4) as though

Jason paused as though he found a difficulty. 詹森停了停,仿佛他遇到什么困难似的。Hannah closed her eyes as though she were too tired. 汉娜闭上眼睛,好像她也累了似的。

有些从句可以改为短语。如:

The boy started as if awakened from some dream. 这男孩一惊,仿佛从梦中惊醒似的。

When she had finished, she waited as though for a reply. 她讲完之后等了等,仿佛是在等候回答似的。


知识点11

引导地点状语从句的连词

引导地点状语从句的连词主要有wherewherevereverywhere。如:

I livewhere there are mountains. 我住在多山的地方。

I willfind her wherever she may be. 不管她在哪里,我都要找到她。

EverywhereI go, I find the same thing. 不管我到哪里,我都遇到同样的情况。


知识点12

引导比较状语从句的连词

引导比较状语从句的连词主要是thanas。如:

It is easier than I thought. 它比我想象的容易。

I myself felt as bad as he did. 我自己也和他一样难受。

They are as firm as one could expect. 他们就像大家期望的那样坚定。


知识点13

并列连词则更加考查对句子意思的理解,并列连词前后的意义重要程度比较类似。并列连词在有些句子中是必不可少的,否则将会犯run-on错误。

run-on sentence流水句;溶合句;不间断句子;缺乏连接词或标点符号的长句

两个句子的连接必须用连词或分号,用逗号来连接两个句子只能是分句,不是主句。

A run-onsentence is a sentence in which two or more independent clauses (that is,complete sentences) are joined with no punctuation or conjunction.

修改如下:

Obviously,the problem of greenhouse effect is one of the biggest problems that had manybig conferences between countries to discuss it today,(这里应该用句号或分号, 连接两个完整的句子)(用句号时大写Thethe movie is just magnifyingthe effect of this problem in order to lead the reason of this clime disastermore believable.

Moreover,before the main catastrophe happened in THE DAY AFTER TOMORROW there are manysmall disasters appeared in the movie, like hail and cyclone which(避免重复可用that could be seen in the(去掉the, 平常生活中in ordinary lifenormal life, that(非限定性定语从句用which引导)let the story(缺少谓语动词be或不妨用“makes+形容词结构更恰当)more closed to people’sexperience and give(与前makes并列,用单三形式givesthe audience more soul shockthan 2012.

In 2012,the communication between the people is not enough,(逗号可改为冒号:或破折号——表示其后的句子解释说明)the main action in this storyis just run--- run on foot, run by car, run by plane and at last run by a hugeship.


例题2

We also incorporated sixteen-century Englishvocabulary into our speech. Substituting good morrow for “good morning”and gramercy for “thank you”.

A. NO CHANGE

B. speech, we substituted

C. speech, substituting

D. speech; substituting


解析2

A不正确很明显,句号导致后面的句子不完整。

D不正确很明显,分号相当于重置一个句子,同样是分号后面的句子不完整。

重点是BC之间的选择,B是准备用两个句子表达这个意思C是准备用现在分词修饰前面的句子,两个方向都是可行的。

B犯了run-on错误,因为两个句子之间需要逗号加上连词或者分号。

C正确

因此C


注意run-on的错误无需关注第二个句子的主语和第一个句子的主语是否一致,只要标点和连词有问题就是犯了run-on错误,高压线。


知识点14

表示并列

(1) 并列连词andor可以连接分句。如:

Hegained a B in English and now he plans to study Spanish. 他英语得了一个B,现在打算去学西班牙语。

Do youwant a bath at once, or shall I have mine first? 你是马上洗澡还是让我先洗?

(2) or连接两个并列的动词或其他单词。如:

We willnot pay ransom or do deals for hostages. 我们不付赎金,也不会救人质做交易。

Are yougoing to water the garden before or after supper? 你打算在晚饭前还是晚饭后给花园浇水?

(3) and可连接两个分句,表示只要…”。如:

Do thatagain and I'll call a policeman! 你要再这样,我就叫警察了。

Give himan inch and he will take a mile. 他会得寸进尺。

(4) or可引起分句,表示否则。如:

Hurryup, or you'll be late for school. 赶快,否则你上学就要迟到了。

Now Imust go or I shall be late for the birthday party. 现在我必须走了,否则我就会误了生日聚会。


知识点15

表示转折

but  

(1) but可以连接两个并列分句或并列成分。如:

I ought to have helped her, but I never could. 我应当给她帮助的,却一直未能这样做。

Nicholas no longer felt disappointed, but happy and hopeful. 尼古拉斯不再感到沮丧,而是高兴,充满希望。

Quickly but silently she darted out of the room. 她快速但悄悄地跑出屋去。

(2) but也可引起状语。如:

Quentin tried to save it, but in vain. 昆廷试着拯救它,但没用。

Rex worked hard but without any success. 雷克斯努力干却未取得成功。

(3) but 引起一个句子,表示对前面句子的转折。如:

Roy made good promises but seldom kept them. 罗伊说得很好听,就是很少遵守诺言。

yet

(1) yet可连接两个分句表示转折。如:

Oscar said he was our friend, yet he wouldn't help us. 奥斯卡说他是我们的朋友,但却不肯帮助我们。

I have failed, yet I shall try again. 我失败了,但我还要试一试。

(2) yet可用于句首。如:

Yet the house was cheerful. 但屋子里充满欢乐的气氛。

Yet its population has doubled. 但它的人口翻了一番。

(3) yet可与andbut连用。如:

Megan's vain and foolish, and yet people like her. 梅甘很虚荣、愚蠢,但人们却喜欢她。

Karida's a funny girl, but yet you can't help liking her. 卡瑞达是一个奇怪的姑娘,但你禁不住会喜欢她。

however    

(1) 表示转折,通常插在句子中间,介于连词和副词之间。如:

Christine,however, was enjoying herself thoroughly. 而克里斯汀却玩得很高兴。

Lorrainewas not, however, aware of the circumstances. 不过罗琳对这情况不知情。

注意标点的使用,这时however做为一个插入语,因此前后都需要标点符号。

(2)however

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