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如何解答新SAT语法考试中的主题句?两大技巧解题有妙招

2016-12-19 14:30 作者:ada
摘要:很多sat考生在解答主题句的时候都无从下手,大部分的传统套路就是老老实实看完整段或整篇文章,大概理解了文章内容后根据排除法去挑选一个比较接近的选项。这实在是一个谈不上褒贬的方法,因为对阅读速度和文章理解都不成问题的高手来说,这样解题完全没有任何的问题。

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  很多sat考生在解答主题句的时候都无从下手,大部分的传统套路就是老老实实看完整段或整篇文章,大概理解了文章内容后根据排除法去挑选一个比较接近的选项。这实在是一个谈不上褒贬的方法,因为对阅读速度和文章理解都不成问题的高手来说,这样解题完全没有任何的问题。 但对大部分从托福八十分起步的考生来说,想要通过短期时间来达到这样的境界,可能性相对较小。所以,接下来,我们来给来给大家介绍两种常用的解决主题句的方法,希望能够在一定程度上帮助各位解题。1.支持句判断法;2. 文章结构法。

支持句判断法

  对于主题句来说,看懂文章理解逻辑当然是最优选项。但在时间有限无法充分理解段落大意的时候,利用文章结构加以辅助来排除选项,也不失一种方法。虽然存在文体的区别(议论文,说明文,非小说的记叙文),但总的来说,语法行文仍然是按照一定的结构而展开。而这样的段落结构能够帮助我们解题。

  我们先来看一个例子:  Transportation planners work closely with a number of community stakeholders, such as government officials and other interested organizations and individuals. For example, representatives from the local public health department might provide input in designing a network of trials and sidewalks to encourage people to walk more. Members of the Chamber of Commerce might share suggestions about designing transportation and parking facilities to support local business.

  我们来分析下这段话。第一句话是该段的主题句,说从事交通规划的人和很多其他人一起合作,比如政府官员,有兴趣的组织机构,和公民。下面围绕这个论点来举例,分别从政府和组织机构的角度来证明主题句的观点。新SAT语法的文章段落,大部分和这一段极其类似,段落的结构可以概括为:主题句 +支持句 +总结句

  一般来说,段首句都是该段的主题句(仅适用于语法的文章)。主题句一般是抛出一个观点。接下来会紧跟1-2个支持句。最后,段末有一个总结句来总结段落。

  所以,如果问这一段的主题句是什么,我们一般可以直接去找主题句后的支持句,看看选项中哪句话跟后面的支持句可以互相支持。我们来看一个例子。

  Which choice most effectively establishes the main topic of the paragraph?

  A. Lucrative salaries are a draw for many prospective hotel managers.

  B. New elements to the hospitality industry, such as “extended stay” suites, are becoming more popular.

  C. One hotel manager in New York City says she enjoys the fast-paced challenges this career offers.

  D. Hotel managers also must have the flexibility and willingness to travel.

  原文:

  Shan Kanagasingham was born in Malaysia, speaks several languages, and studies at a university in Switzerland before working at the Ritz-Carlton in Maui, Hawaii, and the Mandarin Oriental in Hong Kong. Her most recent job: at the Surrey in New York City, offered her the opportunity, to help upgrade and gain more recognition for the hotel. She oversaw the Surrey’s redesign, which included updating the spa and adding kitchens to suites for “extended stay” customers. Kanagasingham says she welcomes the opportunity to make her mark on a hotel and to meet people from all over the world.

  题目问这一段的主题句。我们根据主题句后紧跟支持句的这个结构,先看原文的第一句,讲的是Shan Kanagasingham的个人经历。根据这一句,我们可以大胆得排除A和B了。A说的是诱人的薪水,跟第一句毫无关系。曾有学生提出,B中的extended stay在文章也有提及;但请注意, B选项核心内容为new elements are becoming more popular, extended stay是进一步解释new elements的 。如果这一句做了主题句,原文应继续解释new elements以及popular的原因,这与文章相悖。 比较难排除的是C 和D之间。D说的是hotel managers,而文中只是提及某位具体经理人的个人经历,并不是泛指所有人,也未提到其他manager。所以C选项正确。

  文章结构法

  上文提到,我们可以根据支持句来推断主题句。在实际做题中,除了段落本身的结构,我们还必须关注到段与段之间的关系。上下段之间,一般也需要过渡句来承接两段的内容的联系。这个过渡句,可以是上一段的末句,也可以是下一段的首句。因此,我们需要注意到,段首句除了可以起到主题句的功能,还有可能起到过渡句的功能。我们来看下面这题。

  7. Which choice most effectively introduces the topic of the paragraph?

  A. NO change

  B. Although we often comment on what is ‘lost’ in the process of translation, we rarely consider what is gained.

  C. even the most gifted translators cannot capture all the nuances of the original poem.

  D. while poetry is a particularly difficult class of writing to translate, the impossibility of a completely faithful translation extends to prose as well.

原文:

  Some translators focus on a single characteristic, but those who take a holistic approach often produce more readable translations. Translators are not invisible and passive mediums through which poems pass during their transformations into other language; rather, each translator is an active agent who enriches the text with his or her own artistic choices. While the literal meaning is important, the work of translators is chronically creative: given a poem, it is their job to find the words that best represent the ideas contained within it, and these words may or may not be precise translations of the original. The sixth line in Sappho’s lyric could be rigidly translated “your laugh makes my heart flutter in my chest,” but Anne Carson’s creative translation--- “put the heart in my chest on wings” ---- draws on the metaphorical elements of the original phrase to create a more powerful image.

  我们按照上面讲的方法,根据支持句来选择主题句。原文划线部分是原文给出的主题句,我们抛开不看,看紧挨着的下一句。注意,这句有一个转折词,rather,所以重点信息是rather后面的部分。每位译者都是主动的代理人,用自己的艺术选择来丰富(enriches)译本。这句话说译者丰富了译本。什么叫丰富了译本?就是增加了一些译本没有的内容呗。根据这一点,只有B选项中的what is gained 与之对应。

  我们反过来验证下。A说的是采用面面俱到的翻译方法译出来的文本更有可读性,C说的无论译者多有才华,都没法译出原诗的细节,文章没有提到这部分内容。本文D说的翻译不可能完全忠实也适用于散文。都没有提到散文。所以只能选B。

  我们再回过头来看看B。B说的是:尽管我们经常讨论翻译过程中所丢失的内容,我们很少思考翻译所增加的内容。但本段明明在讲‘增加’,没有说‘减少’,那前半句是怎么回事儿? 请大家注意,段首句除了可以做主题句,也可以起到和前文的过渡。上一段说的就是翻译过程中丢失的内容,所以通过这一句,把上一段和本段很好地衔接起来,这也是cohesion的一种考法。要特别注意。

  总之,主题句这一考点十分重要,大家在平时做完题后,可以去多分析下段落的结构,加深对此考点的了解。


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